WHAT IS A CELL?
Cells are tiny “bricks”, of which the human body consists.
What does the cell look like?
The cells are so tiny that you can not just see them. They can not be seen through the magnifying glass. The cell can be seen with a special device – a microscope.
What do these cells look like?
All of them are very different.
- The cells from which your muscles are made are elongated.
- The cells that make up the bones look like spiders – they have a lot of leg claws.
- The fat cells are smooth and round.
- Blood cells are in the form of a wheel.
There are more than 200 species of these particles in the human.
WHAT’S INSIDE OF THE ANIMAL CELL?
The outer membrane of the animal cell, as a rule, is very thin.
It consists of three layers: outer, middle and inner. The outer and inner layers are formed by proteins, the middle layers are formed by lipoids. On the inner surface, the membrane forms folds and branches, which pass into the endoplasmic cytoplasmic network.
The membrane serves as a protective shell of the cell and actively participates in the regulation of the metabolism between the cell and the environment.
The cytoplasm occupies most of the cell body. Cytoplasm is a complex colloidal system. It consists of proteins, some of which are linked to lipids, various salts, enzymes and large amounts of water. Cellular structural formations of the cytoplasm common to all cells are the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the ribosome and mitochondria.
- ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
The endoplasmic reticulum permeates the entire cytoplasm of the cell. It is a system of the thinnest membranes. Near the core, the membranes become membranes of the nuclear envelope. The endoplasmic reticulum performs the function of the cell core, and along its tubules and sinuses, intracellular metabolism occurs, synthesized in various parts of the cell.
- GOLGI APPARATUS
The Golgi apparatus has a structure close to the structural formations of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is formed by membranes that limit larger vacuoles and small vesicles. The functions of the Golgi apparatus have not been sufficiently elucidated, but it probably serves to temporarily accumulate some intracellular synthesis products, mainly enzymes and hormones. Under a certain state of the body, these substances can be withdrawn from the cell through the endoplasmic reticulum and involved in the metabolic processes of the whole organism.
Are energy centers of the cell and affect its many vital functions. These are small elongated bodies 0.2-5 microns in length. They are covered with a two-layered shell. From the inner layer of the shell, multiple ridges are directed into the mitochondrial cavity. They dramatically increase the internal surface of the mitochondria, which is important for accelerating the biochemical reactions of accumulation and transformation of energy in the cell.
The smallest grains with a diameter of about 0.015 microns, located mainly on the surface of membranes of the endo-plasma network. They are also present in the nucleus of the cell. The function of the ribosomes is to synthesize proteins, which are then carried along the channels of the endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cell.
Centrosome is inherent in almost all cells of the animal. Usually it has the form of a light field, in which are placed 1-2, rarely more small grains – centriole. In some cells, especially those in the state of division, the finest rays radially diverging from the centrosome radiate the radial sphere. Centrioles take an important part in the discrepancy of chromosomes in complex cell division.
WHAT’S INSIDE OF THE PLANT CELL?
In the plant cell, the cell membrane and the contents should be distinguished. The basic vital properties are inherent in the contents of the cell – the protoplast. In addition, the adult plant cell is characterized by the presence of a vacuole – a cavity filled with cell sap.
Protoplast consists of a nucleus, cytoplasm, and included in it the major organelles that are visible in a light microscope: the plastids, mitochondria.
In turn cytoplasm is a complex system with many membrane structures, such as the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and the non-membrane-microtubule structures, ribosomes, etc.
All of these organelles are immersed in the matrix cytoplasm -. Hyaloplasm or the main plasma.
Each of the organelles has its own structure and ultrastructure. Under the ultrastructure is meant the location in space of the individual molecules that make up this organelle. Even with an electron microscope, it is not always possible to see the ultrastructure of smaller organelles (ribosomes).
As science opens new structural formations located in the cytoplasm, and in this regard our modern ideas about it in any way are not final. Measurements of individual cells and organelles approximately the following: a cell 10 microns, 5-30 microns nucleus, chloroplast 2-6 microns 0.5-5 microns mitochondria, ribosomes 25 nm. In the creation of supramolecular structures of individual cell organoids, so-called weak chemical bonds are of great importance. The most important role is played by hydrogen, van der Waals and ionic bonds. The most important feature is that the energy of formation of these bonds is insignificant and only slightly exceeds the kinetic energy of the thermal motion of the molecules. That is why weak bonds easily arise and are easily destroyed. The average lifetime of a weak connection is only a fraction of a second.
Along with weak chemical bonds, hydrophobic interactions are of great importance. They are caused by the fact that the hydrophobic part of the molecule or molecules in an aqueous medium, are arranged so as not to contact with water. At the same time, water molecules, uniting with each other, seem to push out nonpolar groups, bringing them closer. That weak links determined to a large extent the conformation (shape) such macromolecules as proteins and nucleic acids are the basis of molecular interaction and, consequently, in the formation of self-assembly and subcellular structures, including cell organelles.
WHAT ARE THE DİFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL?
- Briefly the difference between plant cells and animal cells
- Plant cells have chloroplasts for photosynthesis, and in animal cells there are no chloroplasts.
- Another difference between the cells of plants and animals is the cells of animals round while the plant cells have a rectangular shape.
- In addition, all animal cells have centrioles, while only some lower forms of plants have centrioles in the cells.
- In animal cells, one or more small vacuoles, while plant cells have one large central vacuole, which can occupy up to 90% of the cell volume.
- In plant cells, the vacuole fulfills the functions of storing water and maintaining the elasticity of the cell. Vacuole functions in animal cells: storage of water, ions and waste.
We hope the article was helpfu to you and you, now, are familiar with the differences between animal cell and plant cell.