The formation and properties of a metallic bond.
In order for a bond to form, atoms must be more stable (with less energy) than they once were. To summarize, when the bonds are formed, they give energy to the outside. When atoms bond, they try to match their electron arrangement to noble gases. The number of bonds an atom can make is equal to the number of half full orbits it can have or have little energy.
When atoms are combined, chemical bonds form as a consequence of changes in electron distribution. There are three basic bonds. These three bond types are :
- Ionic bonds are the bonds given to bonds when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The atoms of one of the elements entering the reaction lose electrons and turn into positively charged ions while the atoms of the other element gain electrons and form negatively charged ions. Thus, the electrostatic attraction force between the charged ions in the opposite (plus or minus) manner holds the ions in a crystal.
- Covalent bonds are bonds in which electrons are jointly used without being transferred from one atom to another. The single covalent bond is divided by two atoms, that is, a pair of electrons used in common. Molecules form molecules that are bound to each other by covalent bonds.
- Metallic bonds are bonds in metals and alloys. Metal atoms are arranged in a three-dimensional structure. The outermost electrons of these atoms travel freely around each side of the structure and allow atoms to connect to each other.
What is the metallic bond?
When a metal interacts with a nonmetal, electrons are transferred from the metal atom to the nonmetal atom, resulting in an ionic (or electrovalent) compound. Positive ions formed by loss of electrons from atoms are called cations. The negative ions formed by the electrons gain from the atoms are also called anions. When these ions are brought together they attract each other to form a crystal.
The compounds of the elements of group A are often expressed using the symbols of the elements together with the points of the valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons used in the chemical reactions of the head group (group A) elements.
For example; consider the reaction between a sodium atom and a chlorine atom:
Sodium is in group 1A and has only one valence electron. The chlorine atom is a member of group 7A and has 7 valence electrons. In the reaction between these two atoms, the sodium atom loses one electron. The electron that the sodium atom has lost is recovered by the chlorine atom.
As you can see, in this reaction, the total number of electrons lost by sodium must equal the total number of electrons recovered by chlorine. The NaCl formula gives the simplest ratio of ions in the compound (1: 1), since the number of sodium ions thus formed is the same as the number of chloride ions coming to the same point. These ions attract each other to form a crystal. Metallic bonds is that.