What is a metallic bond?
A force which ensure the atoms of a metal be together is called a metallic bond. There are 3 chemical bonds; Covalent and ionic bonds. This bond is occurred between the metal elements. Electrons are exchanged among the metals through the related bond. Ionic and covalent bonds are chemical bonds known commonly; there are not very common properties with the bond which is metallic. The metal elements have a different type of chemical bonding.
The Properties of the Metal Bonds
The properties of a metallic bond are generally explained and based on the electrons.
- Metal elements are bright because the mobile electrons are delocalized.
- These bonds have an electrical conductivity. We can explain the reason of this feature again with the mobile electrons.
- They have also thermal conductivity. The kinetic energy in the electrons increases if the metal is heated.
- Metal bonds have malleability. In nature, they are non-directional.
- High tensile strength is one of the features of these bonds.
- Metals are hardness and this is due to the strength of this bond.
- Metals are opaqueness. This is due to the delocalized electrons. Delocalized electrons absorb or reflect the light.
- Boiling and melting points are at a degree between the ionic and covalent bonds.
The Relations between the Chemical Bonds
One of the chemical bonds is ionic bonds. Ionic bond is occurred as a result of the electrons transfer between the atoms; this bond based on electrostatic forms between different charged ions. Electrons are shared between a metal and non-metal elements. In the covalent bond, the electrons are shared between the two atoms. This chemical bond is occurred between the two non-metals. In a metal lattice an attraction is occurred between the mobile electrons and the kernels. This attraction is the base of the metal bond. The ionic bond is strong because of the electrostatic attraction force. We can say that covalent bond is very strong. On the other side, in the metal bond; many kernels attract the electrons simultaneously so this bond is weak. Ionic and metal bonds are non-directional while the covalent bond is directional. As we explained above, the metal bonds have malleability. (Also have ductility). Covalent and ionic bond make the elements hard.
The Examples for the Bonds
Chemical bonds allow atoms of the same species or different species to come together. There is a very weak attraction between the electrons in the last orbit of the metal atoms and the proton in the nucleus. The hardness of the metals differs according to the attraction force of the core of a metal atom. For example; iron element is hard at room temperature and difficult to process but in the other side aluminium element can be bent and it is easy to process. You can review the following information:
- Covalent +metal bond ( Transition metals; Ni,Fe)
- Mostly Metal bond (Cu, Au, Al, Ag)
The elements at the second list are more ductile than the transition metals. A metallic bond doesn’t break because they are non-directional.